In-depth Car Power Inverters

I know you want to find out best car battery charger for your battery immediately. This is a hurry feeling that a car owner often gets when the car battery placement time is coming. However, you should have a solid understanding of the battery charger and the story behind. And one of the most common place points is the car power inverters. Have you ever heard these?

About the car power inverters

Before you ought to know what a car power inverter is, it is necessary to understand the difference from AC to DC power. Basically, AC power is what you need to get out of the outlets at your house while DC power is everything you get out of batteries.

As car batteries offer DC voltage and most of the consumer electronics run on AC, you should take a device as a car power inverter if you want to use AC devices.

With a car power inverter placed, you freely can get any electronic device from your house or office to plug it into your car. Then, you can drive it as usual with some caveats.

Some of the most relevant points to remember when you use an inverter in your cars such as the capacity of the car battery, rated output in the alternator, and output wattage of the inverter.

In fact, the electrical system in your car may put out a finite amount of power only. The battery also enables to offer so much before it goes dead. All of these factors can become crucial parts in deciding which devices could be used as a car power inverter on the road.

The function of a car inverter

Inverters work by using a unidirectional DC power source to imitate an alternating current (AC) power source. Electronic inverters are fundamentally oscillators which quickly switch the polarity of the DC power source. This probably makes a square wave.

Who should use a car inverter?

For those who take lots of time on the road can get benefit from some kind of inverter. These gadgets are truly helpful on long road trips like camping or traveling from states to states for business, and other similar applications.

Some tools like cellular phones and computers could be used with 12v attachments. These instantly plug into a cigarette lighter or accessory jacks. Nonetheless, any type of electronic device which needs an AC input calls for an inverter. Here are a few devices which you enable to run off a car inverter:

  • TVs
  • DVD and Bluray players
  • Game systems
  • Catalytic heaters
  • Cooking equipment
  • Power tools

2 main different types of car inverter

You may see several car inverters on the market, but the 2 certain categories which you will find in automotive applications are

Modified sine wave

Modified sine wave inverters generate a sine wave to circulate for most consumer electronics. They can work well on different applications.

Pure sine wave

These inverters are more expensive, but they can produce a good sine wave which is closer to the AC power.

Generally speaking, some devices ought to fail to exactly work without a stable motion like uninterruptible power.

Most consumer electronics will work fine without getting one. If you are worried, you will need to check with the manufacturer of your device before buying pure sine wave inverters.

How could car inverter connect?

To hook up, an inverter needs to connect to the car battery in some specific ways. Some of the most popular configurations are:

  • Fuse panel
  • Direct to battery
  • Cigarette lighter
  • 12v accessory socket

The simplest way to “wake up” an inverter is to plug it into the cigarette lighter or another 12v accessory socket, but they have some limitations to that kind of setup.

There are some other elements link to the cigarette lighter or accessory circuit, there is an intrinsic limitation on what kind of devices could be connected to the inverter. These hookup inverters can produce around 10 amp draw.

In heavier applications, the inverter should be connected to the fuse panel or straightly to the battery.

Some fuse panels also contain empty slots in which an inverter could be installed which probably give a dedicated circuit to the tool.

In some situations, the inverter enables to directly connect to the battery with one in-line fuse only. Some can use lots of fuse types to evade a possibly hazardous circumstance.

See more :

Additional information

When most vehicles are not completely made with inverters, it is extremely important to prevent overtaxing the system.

One necessary factor to take into account is the capacity of the battery. If an inverter is used when your car is not running, it will consume the battery in the blink of an eye!

Some vehicles still have enough space under the hood for an extra battery. These will cut down the impact of using an inverter when the car is not starting, but it is not a good option at all.

When using a car inverter in the case of starting the car will permit the alternator to hold the battery topped up, it is practical to evade overstressing the alternator. This is because alternators are made to give enough energy to run all inside electronics in a vehicle and keep the battery is charging. They could not have enough extra power to run a powerful inverter.

Facts about Best Home Treadmill That Will Make You Think Twice

Do you want to practice cardio exercises but you do not know how to? You open some videos on YouTube and follow some instructions, but they do not work at all. Do not give up because you still have another option. And the selection I want to show you are…investing fitness equipment, particularly home treadmill. How to find out the best home treadmill?

Identify kinds of home treadmill

When you see many treadmills available on the market, do you recognize that they have two main types? These are manual treadmills and motorized treadmills.

With a manual treadmill, you enable to fold it easy to store in any space. It is also not expensive, but you should pay more attention to use it carefully. And you could not change the incline undoubtedly.

For a motorized treadmill, it is not portable but it is still common when compared to a manual treadmill.

Most motorized treadmills support the user modify the speed and incline without much hassle. You just need to push a button during your workout session. People prefer using motorized treadmill than a manual one.

A home treadmill is also divided into three certain categories which are budget folding treadmills, folding treadmills, and non-folding treadmills.

Budget folding treadmills

Budget folding treadmills are affordable (in price) and they do not require more space. You enable to fold and store them in your suitable space. This feature is so convenient for all households.

However, the quality is one of the most important to figure out a good budget folding treadmill.  In general, these do not provide new-technology features like chest strap and heart-rate monitor. All of them are also made from light materials.


  •    Hefty price
  •    Foldable model (so you can save space and clean it easily)
  •    Suitable for users require walking and jogging workout programs


  •    Not endurable
  •    Not ideal for tall users
  •    Less weight capacity

Folding Treadmills

The first point you will love these is they provide more features than budget folding treadmills. Most prior buyers agree with this point as compared to other treadmills.

Of course, they are the foldable model so that you can get them smaller when not in use. They also have extra state-of-the-art features such as Bluetooth, Warless, chest strap, heart-rate monitor, etc.

For those who love hi-tech, they cannot miss out the folding treadmills!


  •        Foldable fitness equipment
  •        More affordable price than budget folding treadmills
  •        Provided more high-end features
  •        Long period of warranty time
  •        Good choice for runners and other athletes
  •        Wide running space


  •        Heavy and bulky motor
  •        Quite expensive
  •        Not easy to fold

Non-folding treadmills

Next time, if your budget allows you to improve higher workout equipment, then you should go with non-folding treadmills. They are much more excellent quality with modern features. They also have solid frame and deck.

A big running space will make you feel comfortable and interested in while practicing. Additionally, the weight sustainability is higher than folding treadmills and budget folding treadmills. These are reasons why gyms, hotels, clubhouses are available for non-folding treadmills.


  •        Perfection option for runners (especially for advanced athletes)
  •        High-end features
  •        Sturdy frame
  •        Suitable model for diverse using like clubhouse, gym centers, etc.


  •        A bit expensive
  •        Difficult folding

How to choose the best home treadmills?

Endurance level

Study how long all moving parts of a home treadmill last before purchasing is important. I am pretty sure you do not want to be a victim of having a bad home machine with everything is falling apart.

You know, when a part is broken, you have to replace another. And it is a nightmare to buy a new one all the time! Well, the replacement cost sometimes is higher than a new home treadmill.

Its trade value

Why should you look for the trade value instead of focusing on the price tag? This is because you will need to sell it later when not in use for a while or sometimes…you invest in a wrong machine and you want to sell it to find another one. When a treadmill is being bought, it requires having high trade value to keep it for long-term time. On the flip side, it also proves its quality.

Reputation level of a manufacturer

This point always is important to stay focused on; especially when you have to buy a product with lots of bucks like a home treadmill.

Do a small research by yourself by reading all information about a manufacturer and their history in the past.

Also, you should view all brands even if you do not buy these product lines. By doing this, you will have a clear mind and a general background.

Take time to do this and you will realize that it is a worthy task for a true product. Do not make a big whole wallet and a large excuse at the same time! So, wear your glasses and do your homework…

Perhaps, I share all my experiences when selecting a home treadmill. In a nutshell, make your clear mind first before shopping!

How to Play the Ukulele

If you are going to play a musical instrument around 1 month, then you could select the Ukulele. In the Ukulele, you will master three chords and you will impress your friends with an unforced explode of a song.

Buy a ukulele first

Of course, you need to buy a ukulele first, to begin with the playing. I am sure that you will look for the best ukulele brand in the first place. It is not wrong, but you should also consider other factors such as price, size, type, and so on.

A soprano ukulele is probably the most popular size of the ukulele and most novices can try to play.

I highly recommend the geared tuning pegs which stick out of the side of the ukulele first. Then, you can try another thing of the ukulele which is the friction pegs in the back of the instrument.

The geared pegs are much easier to handle than the other one. In other words, you should also learn how to control the ukulele after purchasing.

Begin with the three basic notes

Getting your ukulele in tune is extremely crucial because if you skip this part, the sound of the ukulele will be terrible. And you will not have the inspiration to continue the playing process anymore. You will give up! Thus, you should draw attention to this point.

Typically, there are several ways to tune a ukulele up and the most popular tuning is GCEA. The string closest to your nose is tuned to a G note which the one place in the above middle C. Then, you should move away from your nose to tune the E and the A note.

To tune each string, you should bend the tuning peg which the string is attached to. Tightening the string will take the note increases while lose it will make the note turns down. Imagine that you twang a rubber band or something like that.

You should select an electronic tuner which is available at any music instrument shop nowadays. You clip it onto the head of the ukulele and you can feel the string when you pick off in tune.

If your ukulele has friction pegs only, then you could find the screws in the back of the pegs and you also need to tighten and stop the strings from slipping. You should take a screwdriver and narrow them in order to twist the peg and firmly stays in the right place when you start playing.

Please keep in mind that all ukuleles go out of tune, so if you hear something wrong in the sound, you need to check your tuning again.

Play it now!

If the right hand is yours, you should keep the neck of the ukulele by your left hand to strum the strings with your right.

Similarly, if you are left-handed, remain the neck with your right hand and strum with the left hand.

You can sit down to play or stand up and tuck the body of the ukulele under your forearm.

Also, you should take your right forefinger and touch it across the strings. This should be sound great. In fact, you have played your first chord only which is called an “A Minor 7th”, so you ought to feel happy with yourself for the first time.

Some gurus do not agree with the thing that other players use a plectrum. Generally, these are who love to hang their ukuleles on the wall and they do not play the instrument regularly. The truth is that you are able to use your fingers or a plectrum to play the ukulele.

In case you want to use a plectrum, you should take a hard guitar which is not a floppy plastic one because they can sound weird.

Consider the chord boxes

Using chord boxes is a good idea to improve your playing. Chord boxes can display you where you should put your fingers to create a chord. Additionally, the vertical lines show the strings and the horizontal lines express the frets.

If this does not work, you should place a finger on the third fret of the top A string which is the furthest ones from your nose. It is also called a C chord. If you compare this point to the chord box, it will work.

It would be better if you enable to learn how to use your third finger for this chord because it makes adjusting chords easier.

Eventually, this is a tremendous chord to identify because you are able to use it a lot during the playing time. Also, it is too easy to start.

Play on the beat

When you play music, it is necessary to play on the beat. Most common music has 4 main beats in every bar. This is the reason you should hear someone saying “A-one, 1-one, two, three, four” to count an interesting tune.


Selecting the ukulele to feel the strings and touch the music is a smart choice for those who want to begin with a musical instrument. You can learn how to beat, how control three basic notes and the price is reasonable. Go ahead with the ukulele now!

Interview with Andrey Belenko

In his interview, Andrey Belenko, world-wide renowned password recovery expert, researcher and technical specialist from Elcomsoft, speaks on his career, likes and dislikes in the field of computer security, his research, plans and dreams.

Andrey Belenko was born in Moscow in 1984. Graduated from Moscow State Technical University in 2007 (M.Sc. in Computer Security, with honors). Currently lives in Moscow and works as full-time researcher and software engineer at Elcomsoft since 2007. Was the first to bring GPU acceleration to password recovery; have co-developed ThunderTables, an improvement to Rainbow Tables. Since 2010 became greatly involved in Apple iOS and BlackBerry forensics, have co-researched and co-developed number of company’s tools for this. A frequent traveler and a frequent speaker at international events: presented at more than 20 events since 2009. Enjoys cycling, swimming, shooting (both guns and camera) and traveling. Passionate about aviation and hopes to get pilot’s license one day.

Andrey Belenko, expert, researcher, speaker and technical specialist at Elcomsoft

Yuri: Andrey, please briefly describe your current occupation.

Andrey: At the present time I am a Chief Security Researcher and Software Engineer at Elcomsoft. I am involved in research and development of tools aimed at password recovery and smartphone forensics. Specifically, I am responsible for two large fields: hardware acceleration of password recovery (GPUs and FPGAs) and iOS forensics.

I also handle some of the support tickets, provide some expertise to our customers, and speak on behalf of my employer at various Computer Security- and Computer Forensics-related conferences and shows.

I quickly realized that writing security policies is quite boring

Yuri: How did you become involved in computer forensic field?

Andrey: I got here through computer security. At some point in the past I became very interested in computer security (cryptography in particular) so I got a job as an Information Security Officer. However, I have fairly quickly realized that writing security policies and auditing networks is quite boring and that I do not get enough fun (which was the the incident response part). By that time I was already doing some assignments for Elcomsoft in part-time capacity so I joined them full-time and started working on new tools. That’s how I got to computer (and later mobile phone) forensics.

Yuri: Do you have any related education? What did you major in at university? What field do you have a degree in?

Andrey: I have graduated from the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. Originally enrolled to Electrical Engineering, during my second year became very interested in computer security and transferred to Computer Security Department from which I’ve received my Master’s degree in 2007.

If you need to work very long that’s a clear indication that something went terribly wrong earlier

Yuri: Please describe your working day. When you get to, what do you do first? What do you do most of the time? Are there days when you work 14 hours or longer? If so, why?

Andrey: Working days of 14+ hours are not something I’ve never had, but I try to avoid this kind of things unless absolutely necessary. I believe that job should be done in a steadily manner. If you need to work (very) long hours to meet deadlines or to deliver something then to me that’s a clear indication that something went terribly wrong earlier in the process.

My typical office day is a late one – from 11 am till 9 pm on average. Shifting it into afternoon helps to better align business time with our customers in Europe, UK, and US (at least partially) and it also allows me to avoid (at least some of the) terrible morning and evening Moscow traffic. My working day is usually an extension of my office day: usually there are emails, calls or meetings that should be taken care of outside of office hours.

I think the best place to start a day is a swimming pool: taking 30-40 laps in the morning gives you all the energy you’ll need.

I like challenges and freedom

Yuri: What do you like about your job most?

Andrey: Challenges and freedom. Computer security is full of challenges, whether you need to build something or break something. And it is an awesome feeling to solve challenge, so I really love this part.

In my current position I also have significant amount of freedom. As a researcher I can choose research topics/areas that I like the most (well, they should be related to computer security or computer forensics, but that’s the only requirement). As a developer I am free to choose tools or technologies to use. As a speaker I can choose what countries or events I would like (not) to attend.

Yuri: You are well-known researcher. Is the research a part of your daily job or you do it outside the office?

Andrey: It is part of my job and I sometimes do it outside of the office. Some research topics – hardware acceleration, for example, – are hard to do outside of the office because you need access to special hardware and/or equipment. Others, like, say, reverse engineering or sketching some proof-of-concept code, can be done virtually anywhere.

Publishing small pieces, such as articles or blog posts, is much more valuable to the community than books

Yuri: Do you have or plan to have a book on your research? Articles?

Andrey: I do articles from time to time, but that isn’t a priority. The majority of “publications” I have are conference slides and whitepapers. When time permits I do technical posts in our corporate blog.

It would be great to have a book published, but I see some problems here. First, computer security and computer forensics are very fast-changing fields, so it is a very difficult task to release a book that, when released, will still provide new and relevant information. From this point of view I believe publishing small pieces, such as articles or blog posts, is much more valuable to the community.

Second, and this is what I’m hearing from my friends who have some experience with publishing books, the amount of time and effort you need to put into writing a quality technical book is just not worth the benefits. At least here in Russia.

That said, maybe if one day I have enough free time I will try and write something. (smiling)

Yuri: What research are you working on now or just finished?

Andrey: I have recently finished a small project to add support of password recovery on FPGAs from Pico Computing to certain Elcomsoft’s products. Right now I’m working on low-level iOS forensics project.

I first heard about Elcomsoft when Dmitry Sklyarov was arrested in the U.S.

Yuri: How did you join Elcomsoft?

Andrey: I first heard about Elcomsoft when Dmitry Sklyarov was arrested in the U.S. for alleged DMCA violation (NB: Dmitry and Elcomsoft were later found not guilty by the U.S. Court of Law). Few years later Dmitry was invited to make a speech in front of prospective students in the school where I was working so this is how we met. Few months later he introduced me to then-President of Elcomsoft and I’ve got my first assignment. That was 2004 and I was still attending University. I’ve graduated in June 2007 and been working full-time for Elcomsoft since July 2007.

Yuri: What is special about your company and tools?

Andrey: The company is always about the people. At Elcomsoft we have quite a few great folks who make the company very special to me.

As for the tools we offer, I believe they are quite technological. Many of them were the first of their kind (e.g. password cracking on GPU, iOS 4 data decryption, BlackBerry password cracking, etc), some of them still remain unique as of today (e.g. pulling iCloud backups from Apple’s cloud).

One of the most unusual “Thank you” I’ve received was a poem from Germany

Yuri: What is the most interesting/unusual thing a customer has ever said about your company or your solutions?

Andrey: Oh, we receive all sorts of customer feedback, both positive and not-so-positive. Of course we try to deal with each case individually and almost always we resolve the issue to our customers’ satisfaction. The two most unusual “Thank you” messages I’ve received were a bottle of wine from South Korea (for some help with iOS forensics) and a poem from Germany (for recovery of 12+ character PGP passphrase).

Yuri: What is about your company or tool which you are proud of?

Andrey: I am of course very proud of the tools and technologies I have developed or co-developed. Two prime examples of that would be the GPU acceleration for password cracking and tools for iOS 4 forensics.

Yuri: I remember we first met in China at the CFC conference. Does the Chinese market have any specifics you take into consideration in your tools? Do you tailor your tools to any specific requirements of a specific country market?

Andrey: Well, I’m a tech guy, not the sales one. That said, my impression is that in China (as in Middle East) it is critically important to have local partner. You won’t get anywhere without this.

In the Beijing metro after CFC conference: Andrey Belenko with Elcomsoft CEO Vladimir Katalov (at the right) and his future interviewer, Yuri Gubanov

Yuri: What are your immediate plans with regards to your solutions?

Andrey: My immediate plan is to complete the iOS forensic project I’m working on. In longer term I foresee some changes in my career path.

Yuri: Have you ever done any forensic or corporate security investigations yourself?

Andrey: Yes, during my days as Information Security Officer I have handled good deal of investigations, mostly data leaks. At Elcomsoft I do not do complete investigations, but I do provide expertise and support to facilitate investigations carried by our customers and partners from time to time.

I remember my first investigation in detail

Yuri: What is the most interesting or unusual investigation you or your company has ever been involved in?

Andrey: The very first investigation was easy but interesting and, unlike many investigations that followed, I do remember it in detail. I was in high school and we had an incident with our website being attacked and certain inappropriate messages posted to it. I was tasked with tracking down the person which I successfully did. The interesting part was communicating with ISP. It was the first and the only investigation when ISP cooperated without sending authorities in.

Investigators shouldn’t be afraid of encryption

Yuri: What do you think every investigator should know about password recovery?

Andrey: I think every investigator should know about encryption, at least the very basics. And she or he shouldn’t give up on particular piece of evidence simply because it is encrypted or password protected. There are still some files and passwords that are trivial to break or bypass and this knowledge is very important. Investigators shouldn’t be afraid of passwords or encryption, they should understand it. Once understood and fear is gone, it is much easier to deal with.

Yuri: In your opinion, what is the current state of computer forensic science in Russia? Of legal computer forensic practices?

Andrey: I cannot comment on legal practices because I am no expert here. On the technical side, however, I definitely see positive changes, at least here in Moscow (speaking about law enforcement). My impression is that although there is no shortage of funding to get whatever hardware/software is needed, there is a definite shortage of qualified personnel, and this is the huge problem for law enforcement. It is very difficult to retain people with the levels of pay and amount of work they have to do. This is getting better, though.

Taking 30-40 laps in a pool at morning gives you all the energy you’ll need

Yuri: Are there any obstacles to selling products like yours?

Andrey: Again, no expert here, but I don’t really think there are any. Some customers ask about the legality of the tools, but as far as I know, for the jurisdictions where our tools may be considered harmful/illegal, we have all the needed paperwork to make our customers happy.


Andrey Belenko: My dream is to get pilot’s license one day

Yuri: Cloud computing is becoming very popular now. Do you feel that forensic market for vendors, like you, is decreasing due to that?

Andrey: Not a sales or marketing person, but I don’t see how cloud computing would hurt us. Many of our applications are compute-intensive, so the cheaper cloud computing becomes, the more market we have. In fact, I believe that cloud computing should increase sales of our cloud-aware products.

We will see a product for cloud storage forensics soon

Yuri: The more data is in a cloud, the less data is on a suspect’s computer. If all data goes to a cloud, will your company disappear?

Andrey: I don’t think so. Cloud storage, like cloud computing, may present a challenge, but in the end it increases market by creating new product opportunities. I am pretty sure we will see a product for cloud storage forensics pretty soon.

And old-school tools aren’t affected by that much either: cloud storage is just a medium and may still store encrypted or password-protected documents and there will still be need for tools to deal with that. Besides, we’re not only password cracking company, we also do other things less affected by clouds.

Yuri: Do you have any support for clouds in your products?

Andrey: Yes. Our solution for distributed password recovery can utilize cloud computing platforms, although at current cloud computing pricing this doesn’t make much sense. And another our product can pull users’ data from the iCloud (cloud where Apple iOS devices can store their data).

Yuri: Do you think that forensic investigation itself is going to be much more difficult due to the cloud idea implementation?

Andrey: I don’t think it will be much more difficult. I think it will require new tools and, maybe, slightly different approach or thinking.

Social networks actually make investigations easier

Yuri: The same question about social networks, which displace usual evidence such as mailboxes, chats, etc.: does this decrease your niche and make investigations more difficult?

Andrey: Social networks is not our niche at all, but I think they actually make investigations easier in many cases. Many people tend to (over)share lot of information about their friends or themselves. In my experience social networks proved to be extremely helpful when doing background checks and I don’t see why it should be any different for an investigation.

Yuri: What do you like most about computer forensics?

Andrey: Challenges, I guess. As a R&D guy I love to break stuff and then make a tool out of that.

Yuri: What forensic resources do you regularly read? What would you recommend to others?

Andrey: Twitter (smiling). I do not read any particular resource but I do follow people from the industry and I rely on them for posting/sharing interesting materials. I also try to keep track of talks/presentations on relevant conferences as this is where new stuff is usually released.

Yuri: How old are you?

Andrey: I’m 28.

Yuri: How many kids do you have?

Andrey: None so far.

Yuri: How many hours of sleep do you usually have?

Andrey: I usually try to sleep for at least 6 hours, usually I do 8, and when on a break in some nice sunny place I can easily do 10 (smiling).

The most unusual place I’ve been to is probably China

Yuri: What is your favorite vacation spot? What is the most unusual place you have ever been to?

Andrey: Western Europe is very good for vacations: it is fairly close (to Russia) and it is diverse enough to find exactly what you’re looking for. I am love both the lakes and mountains of southern Germany and Switzerland and the sea and sunny beaches of Mediterranean (smiling).

The most unusual place I’ve been to is probably China with its mind-blowing monuments like the Great Wall and the Ming dynasty Tombs with underground palaces.

Yuri: Do you do any sports? Which one? What is your preference in watching professional sports?

Andrey: I do not do any sports professionally. I do, however, enjoy swimming, cycling, and shooting (guns and pictures).

Unlike almost everyone on this planet I do not enjoy watching football or hockey. I do enjoy watching technological sports. It could be Formula-1 or it can be Red Bull Air Race or something similar.

For me vacation means I need to work an hour or two per day

Yuri: When did you have your last vacation? A real vacation, without any Internet and calls from your colleagues or customers?

Andrey: Haven’t happened yet, I guess. For me vacation means I don’t have to be in the office and only need to work an hour or two per day. Last such vacation happened just weeks ago: I went to southern Italy for 5 days. It was awesome :) .

I’d love to get pilot’s license one day

Yuri: Do you have a dream?

Andrey: Yes, I’d love to get pilot’s license one day. I was pretty close to doing this earlier this year but things didn’t work out, so I hope to take another shot.

Also, although not exactly a dream, I’d love to get a Ph. D. so if any of the readers are looking for a Ph. D. student please let me know (smiling).

Yuri: Thank you too, Andrey, for your time and really interesting answers!

Andrey: Thank you, Yuri, for taking your time to do this interview.

See more : Interview with Pasquale Stirparo

Choosing the Most Comfortable Work Boots to Protect Your Feet

There is no doubt that the importance of work boots to protect our feet and toes as well. Moreover, the right pair of shoes can do more than just protect your feet. Choose the suitable shoes and these also rescue you from many tough hazards such as electrical charges, slippery surfaces, etc.  

When the importance of work boots is absolute, selecting the true pair of shoes, this might be a little more difficult task. Should you focus on the price only? Who makes the most comfortable work boot? In fact, you should consider the durability and the comfort of a pair of work boots only. Here are a few brands and recommendations about working boots that you can take into account.

Top brands for the best working boots


Timberland is one of the most famous brands in the shoe industry from countries to the world. When you choose a Timberland product, you will satisfy the quality of these shoes. If you are looking for a boot that is comfortable and durable, Timberland will be your chosen.


Caterpillar is also a famous brand name in the work boot industry on the market. The only downside of these shoes is you will spend a long time to feel comfortable in every room. However, the good news is that when your feet adapt this point, you enable to wear these more than a year.

Red Wing

For those who love stylish factor, they enable to consider Red Wing as these shoes are very fashionable in the current market. However, the price point of these shoes is quite expensive. Thus, if you do not care about the price, Red Wing will be the most comfortable work boots.


Keen might not be a famous brand for everyone, but the quality of these shoes will also satisfy most of the users such as the comfort, durability, safety, and beautiful. Another great point in these shoes is they do not have high price point so that most of the users can select and get experiences.  


Unlike Timberland boots, you do not have to take much time to break in the shoes as they are suitable for your feet for the first time of wearing. Nonetheless, they do not have many stylish boots in their product lines.

Some recommendations about a comfortable pair of work boot

Timberland Pro Men’s 26078 Titan 6

Timberland Pro Men’s 26078 is a classic work boot, but these also one of the best sellers all time. Each pair has the Power Fit Comfort System to boost maximum support for your feet. They do not have any break in period and can easily be taken to work all days.

The safety toe is inbuilt an aluminum coated which provides the protection in a lighter weight. The soles also have slip-resistant, abrasion, and oil-resistant factors.

These shoes are durable up to two years even if you wear them on a regular basis. On the one hand, this product also has a 30-day money back guarantee so that you enable to change other shoes during the thirty day period. However, these shoes are not a stylish model.

Red Wing Heritage Men’s Classic Work 

Red Wing produced their boots in World War One and Two. After that, they have developed a well-served reputation for making some of the best work boots on the market. The Heritage Line has the thick soles are perfect and supports the heel, feet, and toes. Thus, they are suitable for working on harsh conditions and other concrete surfaces.

How about the price range? Most of the customers totally purchase these to add the product in their preparation during a working day. When wearing, you will feel comfortable, and they are also fashionable so that you enable to take them on every occasion.

However, you need to spend one or two days to have a break in period, but this is not a big problem for high-quality work boots!

Caterpillar Men’s Second Shift ST

You probably focus on the quality of the leather in these shoes. Overall, the professional structure clearly appears and you will be surprised that these are made to last.

In the break-in period, the steel toe problem in the working boots might be uncomfortable for users. However, when the break-in is over, this issue automatically disappeared.

If you want to wear a pair of shoes that you can have after working, they are also your best option.

The downside of this product is they do not have waterproof feature, so I feel uncomfortable to wear these on rainy days.


In this time, you have already known some trust brand and these shoes to protect your feet while working. Hope that you will find the most comfortable work boots that are the best choice for you. Go for high-quality boots is the first authority, but do not forget to maintain your shoes to protect both your feet and work boots.

How to choose the Best Glock Night Sights?

To enhance the effect of each glock shoot at night, the shooters often bring a useful accessories called  Glock night sights. All of them, to light up stronger in the dark, are used tritium or fiber optics. While glock is the favorite of many people, its partner – glock sights seem to be more complicated with variety of choices from some companies as Trijicon, Meprolight, Ameriqlo. The question for your overnight trip is that how to choose the best glock night sights in a series of selections. You can find out the individual functions in each glock sights. However, thanks to a usual design, many sights can fit immediately into several models of gun.

There are 3 glock night sights:

The I Dot Sights: Drawn a line from the back site under the notch to the dot in the front of the glock, the I Dot Sight is made to the line with your prey placed in the center of the dot.

The 2 Dot Sights: Aim to the prey very fast with a larger dot. The 2 Dot setup show you a small dot on the back sight under the rabbet. The other one is in the front with bigger size and lighter looking.

The 3 Dot Setup: With the short guns offer 3 dot sights, its suitable night sights are equipped tritium or fiber optics or both of them. The first and second dots appear in the back and the rest one is in the front of gun.

Chose best glock sights from your demand:

The first thing you should know is about what you wait for? Do you need the sights to practice your shoot? Do you want glock sights as accessories for your weapon? Or just for defending aim? Basing on your target, you can do the right choice by referring below guide:

Depending on your demand, you need to care about:

  • Colored dot of sights.
  • Low profile sights.
  • All rear sights.
  • The night sights including fiber optics, other lights…

Your choice need to be proper with the impersonal elements such as wind, temperature, speed, and other environment influence. They can be your advantage or disadvantage situation.

In conclusion, there are 5 things you should know to buy a best glock night sight:

  1. Front Sight Option: In the forest of glock sights, let’s focus on the undercut aim sights and ramps. Almost night sights in the market provides a semi-ramp profile, which is the best way to diminish the obstacles either plain or notched.
  2. Front Sight Amplitude and Height: While the sight height can choose basing on the shot point, the width makes an impaction to the speed and exactness of the shots. With longer distance to the aim, it will be less advantage if using a wider glock sight. The most recommended width is 125’’ for ideal speed and exactitude.
  3. Back Sight: The favorite sight of standard is The 2 Dot Sights. They often bring shooters the nice shots thanks to the ideal line of two dots in back and front. These kind of sights remain tritium dots or drawn dots.
  4. Tritium or Fiber Optics: As mentioned above, almost of glock night sights is produced with tritium or fiber optics or both of them. While tritium is suitable for dark condition, fiber optic give shooter a – red – dot, which help you aim your gun to targets more correct than ever though it is too bright or too dark. It means that, the glock sights with fiber optic can serve you in aphotic condition and over bright as well. But thing you should know is that the tritium-sights is greater in use if you want a glock sights for nighttime only. Its minus point is life-span. You must change to another glock night sight after ten years identifying yourself with it.
  5. Plain Black: A perfect choice for practice demand because the plain back is just a common glock sight to aim to stabile background. In other side, it can be not good enough to setup with your shots in the conditions of inconstant background.

Chose best glock sights basing on target distance:

Let’s estimate the distance to your aim, then choosing your right glock sight:

  1. Short Distance: The sights for short distance target is often used in the case of home-defense. A night sight for home-defense need to be easily possible for amateurs when they raise their hands to aim to quarry. These characteristics are often found out in “The I Dot Sights”.
  2. Short to medium distance: Beside of choosing “The I Dot Sights”, you can look around with “The 3 dot sights”. Some of them offers square notched back glock sights. With this kind of sight, you can use for defensing at home or other taks sometimes.
  3. Medium to long distance: Your options are “The 2 Dot Sights” and “3 Dot Sights”. Another referring is The Sight Ledge that is also active both day and night. These sights can help you aim the objectives at a gap of 18.5 meters. Although they have a little bit of expensive, they still satisfy you by their available qualities at the end.
  4. Long Distance: To help your shoots in a difficult conditions such as dark spaces, circa 45 meter gaps, you can select the brothers of 2-Dot Sight and 3-Dot Sight. But the important thing is that you need to be a profession to conquer the challenging conditions.

Chose glock night sights basing on your budget:

  • Saving your budget: You can believe that almost of time, the low-cost night sights do their right functions. About the Chinese products, even when it fails with a so small probability, you should better ignore them. Some of them can have problem with the back site that cannot be installed though the front is fit to the gun.
  • Quality sights with higher price: You will be highly recommended to choose the sights in this market. They can do right way of glock night sights. Some high-end products can make you safe with very accurate running.

10 Facts you should know about the Frech Bulldogs

Playful, smart, adaptable, and completely irresistible, just a few choice words that accurately describe the French Bulldog. The Frenchie will make you laugh. He’s a charming, clever dog with a sense of humor and a stubborn streak. Bred for centuries as a companion, he’s gained so much popularity that he’s fast becoming the city-dwellers’ dog of choice. Hi, welcome to my blog. Today, we look at the Bat-eared but oddly beautiful, French Bulldog. Let’s get started. Let us know about your doggy in the comments below.

History of French Bulldogs

  1. The “bouldogge Francais,” as he is known in his adopted home country of France, actually originated in England, in the city of Nottingham. Small bulldogs were popular pets with the local lace workers, keeping them company and ridding their workrooms of rats. After the industrial revolution, lacemaking became mechanized and many of the lace workers lost their jobs.

Some of them moved to France, where their skills were in demand, and of course, they took their beloved dogs with them. The dogs were equally popular with French shopkeepers and eventually took on the name of their new country.

The strangeness on the ears of French Bulldogs

  1. The French Bulldog is known for his “bat” ears. Early in the breed’s history, though, one could find many Frenchies with “rose” ears, folded over like an English bulldog’s. American breeders decided early on that bat ears should be considered the standard, because they are more distinctive. Since then, rose ears on a French bulldog have been a disqualifying characteristic according to the American Kennel Club’s breed standard.

The popularity of the dog’s French Bulldogs


  1. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the French Bulldog became popular with members of the Paris bohemian class: ladies of the night, artists, writers such as the novelist Colette, and wealthy Americans doing the Grand Tour. Impressionist artist Toulouse Lautrec even put a Frenchie in one of his paintings, “Le Marchand des Marrons.” The Frenchie has gained rapidly in popularity more recently. Today, the breed ranks 6th among the breeds registered by the American Kennel Club, up from 71st in 2000, a testament to his qualities as a companion.

The ups and downs of the breed French Bulldogs

  1. He didn’t always have it so easy though. The Great Depression was rather tough on purebred dogs in general and Frenchies in particular. The breed dwindled to just a handful of registered dogs by 1940 and it was another forty years before they recovered fully. After World War I the decline of the breed was swift, partly due to the rise of a hardier breed less susceptible to heat and that had similar looks and charm: the Boston terrier. By the 1980s new breeders came to the forefront, energizing the show world and registrations rose exponentially.

The city’s pet

  1. A French bulldog is able to be happy in any housing. This breed is suitable for city life because no large yard is required. He is not meant to be a jogging companion, but he is always willing to go for a brisk walk. The French bulldog does not require a lot of food but they enjoyed eating the AvoDerm Natural Dog Food – this is the best dog food for french bulldogs and you can find it at The Frenchie snorts and snores, but somehow it’s part of his appeal.

Dog breeds French Bulldogs love movies

  1. Hollywood seems to be cashing in on the irresistible appeal of French bulldogs. The breed can be found in lots of movies and TV shows from the past decade or so. The list includes “From Hell” (2001), “Bringing Down the House” (2003), “Secondhand Lions” (2003) and “Due Date” (2010). A French Bulldog even portrayed Gamin de Pycombe in James Cameron’s mega-popular “Titanic” film. Gamin de Pycombe was a champion show dog that unfortunately perished with the sinking of the real RMS Titanic.

The truth why airlines forbid carrying French Bulldogs?

  1. Frenchies find themselves on the no-fly list. French Bulldogs are a brachycephalic breed, like English Bulldogs and Boston Terriers, meaning they have shorter snouts than other dogs. These pushed-in faces can lead to a variety of breathing and overheating problems. This facial structure, coupled with high stress and uncomfortably warm temperatures, can lead to fatal situations for dogs with smaller snouts.

Many breeds like bulldogs and pugs have perished while flying, so as a result, many airlines have banned them.

French Bulldogs are easy training

  1. His love of play and relaxed attitude carry over into his training sessions. The French Bulldog is intelligent, and training him is easy as long as you make it seem like a game and keep it fun. He is a free thinker and is not an ideal breed for competing in obedience or agility, although some have risen to the challenge. This freethinking approach can also lead to a stubborn nature, and if he decides to dig in his heels there is no budging him.

They love to be in the spotlight

  1. The French Bulldogs makes a wonderful watchdog, but he can become territorial. He also likes being the center of attention, which can lead to behavioral problems if he is overindulged.

They are good friends

  1. When a baby orangutan named Malone was abandoned by his mother, the Twycross Zoo in England didn’t know if he would make it. Luckily, a 9-year-old French bulldog named Bugsy stepped in and took care of the little guy. The pair became fast friends and would even fall asleep together. When Malone was big enough, he joined the other orangutans at the zoo. Well, there ya have it.

Wow, what an incredible breed with such an interesting past. We love hearing about your pooches, so tell us all about your Frenchie in the comments below. Want more fun, fauna facts? Like and share to not miss a single fact. Goodbye!

Interview with Pasquale Stirparo

In the interview, Pasquale Stirparo, forensic and security researcher at the European Commission, speaks on his passion for his work, his research, forensic standardization and mobile malware-related questions.

Pasquale Stirparo is Digital Forensics and Mobile Security Researcher at the Joint Research Centre of European Commission. His main research interests revolve around the security and privacy issues related to mobile devices communication protocols and mobile applications, mobile malware, mobile forensics, and cybercrime. He is also involved in, other than very interested to, the Digital Forensics field from the “standardization” point of view. Prior to joining JRC, Pasquale was working as Security Consultant and Digital Forensics Analyst for an Italian-based private company. He has also been invited as a speaker to several Italians conferences and seminars on Digital Forensics and lecturer on the same subject for Politecnico di Milano and United Nations (UNICRI). Pasquale is also currently enrolled at the Ph.D. student at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) of Stockholm, holds an MSc in Computer Engineering from Politecnico di Torino and he’s certified GCFA, OPST, OWSE, ECCE.

Pasquale Stirparo, Digital Forensics, and Mobile Security Researcher at the Joint Research Centre of European Commission.

Yuri: Pasquale, please briefly describe your current organization and your role there. What is the goal of your institute and what area is covered by its activities?

Pasquale: The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is one of the Directorate-General (DG) of the European Commission; its mission is to provide scientific advice and technical know-how to support a wide range of EU policies. Its status as a Commission service, which guarantees independence from private or national interests, is crucial for pursuing its mission.

I work at the Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), in the Digital Citizen Security Unit. The goal of my group is to “investigate, assess, and forecast issues of the exploitation – intentional or unintentional – of personal digital data of citizens in our forthcoming digital society”.

Yuri: Pasquale, please briefly describe your current organization and your role there. What is the goal of your institute and what area is covered by its activities?

Pasquale: The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is one of the Directorate-General (DG) of the European Commission; its mission is to provide scientific advice and technical know-how to support a wide range of EU policies. Its status as a Commission service, which guarantees independence from private or national interests, is crucial for pursuing its mission.

I work at the Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), in the Digital Citizen Security Unit. The goal of my group is to “investigate, assess, and forecast issues of the exploitation – intentional or unintentional – of personal digital data of citizens in our forthcoming digital society”.

Mobile botnets and mobile malware will be a big issue in the near future

I work as Digital Forensics and Mobile Security Researcher, and at the same time, I’m enrolled at the Ph.D. student at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) of Stockholm. My research interests include security and privacy issues related to mobile devices communication protocols (Bluetooth, NFC, GSM, etc) and applications, mobile malware, mobile forensics, and cybercrime. On the mobile communication protocol part I’m currently working on “fuzz testing” the NDEF (NFC Data Exchange Format), to find potential vulnerabilities in the NFC message format, and also the level of security of current NFC mobile payment solutions. On the mobile applications part, my colleague and I are studying several categories of applications using different methodologies, in order to find leaks of sensitive information and therefore privacy risks for the users. Mobile forensics plays an important role as one of the methodologies used to analyze the mobile phones. Finally, I started also to look into mobile malware and mobile botnets. Although we don’t see many mobile botnets now and mobile malware is still perceived as low risk compared to their desktop counterpart, I believe it will be a big issue in the near future. On this last aspect of my work, it is clear how and why mobile forensics and cybercrime are linked.

I was very hungry on learning

Yuri: How did you become involved in computer forensic field? Do you have any related education? What did you major in at university? What field do you have a degree in?

Pasquale: I got my Master Degree in Computer Engineering in 2008, within the double degree program between Politecnico di Torino and Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) of Stockholm, with a specialization in Information and Communication System Security. Immediately after I started working as penetration tester at, an Italian based security company. I didn’t really know much about computer forensics at that time. After a couple of months, in the company there was the need to train more staff in the forensics division, I was very hungry on learning anything I could, so I started training night and day. It was a fascinating world to me. A few months later I got my GCFA (GIAC Certified Forensics Analyst) certification and after one year (and tons of analysis and investigations) I was the main forensics analyst in the company.

Twitter is the best source of forensics news

Yuri: Please describe your working day. When you get to work, what do you do first? What do you do most of the time? Are there days when you work 14 hours or longer? If so, why?

Pasquale: I’m not really a morning person, so I start the day emptying my inbox in front of a cup of coffee and then I go through my different sources of forensics and security news, and Twitter is far the best of all of them. After that, I try to get rid of any “documentation” part like reports, administrative papers to fill, etc., so that by the time I finished the “boring” part my brain is completely ready to start the research work. In this, I include reading of papers, technical books, and practical code development.

I’m very enthusiast and passionate about my work

For me (luckily or not) my job is also my big passion and sometimes even my hobby. So I happen to work 14 hours or more, my average I would say is around 12 hours a day, and almost every weekend I spend a big amount of time on it. This is not because my boss requires it, I do my normal schedule at the office and then I keep working on my other projects at home at night. It’s because I’m very enthusiast and passionate about it, I have often new ideas that I want to try, new things that I want to learn. Moreover, since I believe very much in the community and in the sharing of knowledge, I’m involved in several organizations, some of that with acting roles. This is one more reason why I spend so many hours “working”.

Attorneys and forensics analysts often don’t speak the same language

Yuri: You teach computer forensics, what can you say about today’s students? Are they smarter than you in their age? Are they future forensics stars?

Pasquale: I like to refer to it as digital forensics instead of computer forensics since now it covers many more aspects than just computers.

So far I’ve never had the chance to teach to people younger than me, because even when I did lectures for the university, it was about post-degree specialization course, and when I was teaching I was 25 and 26 years old. Moreover, most of my courses (especially the one for the United Nations) were targeting attorneys and law enforcement officials, only a few seminars for pure technicians. This because one of the aspects/issues on which I was (and I’m still) insisting very much, is the fact that attorneys and forensics analysts often don’t speak the same language. This is particularly true in my country (Italy), and you can understand that is of vital importance bringing the two categories closer one to the other, due to the impact of work they have to do together. I didn’t see any future stars yet, but I have to say that finally many attorneys are getting aware and trained in digital forensics, and this is very promising for the future.

Yuri: Do you often travel for business? What events do you speak at?

Pasquale: Having started the new job just 15 months ago, the first year was quite of “preparation” let’s say, so hopefully there will be the chance of publishing and presenting some interesting work around conferences. But so far not yet.

My work has positive impact on the society

Yuri: What do you like about your job most? Less?

Pasquale: Now that I’m doing mainly research, the best thing is to leave complete freedom to my creativity and problem-solving attitude. It’s very stimulating. When I was more involved in criminal investigations (in my previous work was on a daily basis), the idea that with my work and my knowledge I could help to put criminals in jail, and so having a positive impact on the society, was very gratifying. You have to think that my father is a doctor, so I grew up with this “model/example” of putting your knowledge at other people service, to help them, to make good things. He was saving lives, I didn’t really know how I would end up helping people starting to study computer engineering (you have to admit that it can be really hard to link the two things when you are 18), but I found myself into forensics helping, if not saving, people’s lives in a certain way. This is what I like most of our job.

On the other hand, I must say that having to analyze the certain type of evidence can be very unpleasant, and you cannot step back when it happens.

Yuri: What is about your current or previous job that you are proud of? An important case solved with your help/tools?

Pasquale: You are proud of every case you solve. But there are two that I think I will always remember. One is the first case I took the lead on, it was a big one, around 10 terabytes to acquire and analyze, over one year of investigation that ended up with more than 900 pages of reports. The second one is a case where the system administrator was stealing confidential documents from the CEO and other managers. I remember I found a group of wave files in a weird folder. While looking at them at first sight with a hex editor, I recognized the starting sequence of a Word file inside the audio one, which turned out to be one of the documents stolen. I was still at the very beginning, so I was very proud of that.

Pasquale and the digital whiteboard.

Yuri: Did you ever appear in a court to present your findings?

Pasquale: While I have done many forensics investigations myself, some assisting law enforcement officials, some others for private companies, I never had to appear in court to defend them.

Yuri: What are your immediate plans with regards to your job?

Pasquale: I have some ideas about some forensics tool I would like to develop, and my plan is to focus more and more (if not completely) on mobile security and mobile forensics. Plus I’m also doing my Ph.D. at the same time, which I plan to finish by 2014, so I need to speed up.

I was lucky to do the path from pen-tester to forensics analyst

Yuri: You are pen-tester and vulnerability expert. Can you tell us a bit more about these activities?

Pasquale: This is the way I started. I think it would be very useful for all forensics practitioners to have that background, also in order to be able to think like a potential intruder. This would help a lot both in IR and forensics analysis. I admit that I was lucky to do the path from pen-tester to forensics analyst, it wasn’t planned.

In the field of digital forensics, there are many things that cannot be standardized

Yuri: You are a contributor for one of ISO standards. Please describe your work there. What have you done and why they need this standard? What was your motivation to work on it? Who should be using this standard?

Pasquale: Standardization is something I’ve been interested in almost since the beginning. This because our field is full of “best practices” and “supposed-to-be best practices”, which doesn’t help to give that official character they deserve. This doesn’t even help against the fragmentation that affects this community and that we often hear discussing. It is also true and obvious that, due to the nature of this field, there are many things that cannot be standardized, such as the interpretation of digital evidence just to give an example, also because technology and tools change at a faster pace than a standard could do. But a general methodology yes, this can and should be standardized and acknowledged by the community. That’s why I believed since the beginning in the development of the ISO27037 “Guidelines for identification, collection, acquisition, and preservation of digital evidence”. As you know, this first part of the forensics process is very important; any mistake during the acquisition or collection may completely invalidate the evidence and therefore compromising the rest of the investigation and the trial. In this phase, as well as during the preservation, a methodology can be applied independently of the tools used. A sort of checklist to follow, that will prevent the practitioner from making mistakes or following a procedure that may be questioned in court. And this should be somehow certified.

On this regards the newborn Standards Committee of the Consortium of Digital Forensics Specialist (CDFS), of which I’m also active member, has started to collect all these standards that are around to draw a sort of line about the current state of standardization in the forensics field, which standards are really valuable, which not and what is missing. In this committee, there are real forensics practitioners, people with hands-on experience that know what they are talking about (something that is usually missing in many “high level” committees), and it’s chaired by Pavel Gladyshev, who is highly knowledgeable.

Yuri: Wow, this world is indeed small, we at Belkasoft have also worked with Pavel.

There are too many “cheap supposed-to-be forensics experts”

Yuri: In your opinion, what is the current state of computer forensic science in Europe? Of legal computer forensic practices there?

Pasquale: I think in Europe we are a “bit behind schedule”, due to few high-level training opportunities and investments in the field until recently. Luckily the trend is changing, more and more universities in the last years are starting new degree programs entirely focused on digital forensics and governments are investing more on training LEA as well. Also, the announcement of the European Commission, about the establishment of the Cybercrime Centre from 2013, is a positive signal towards increasing the effort and the investments also on digital forensics.

The only problem still persisting is that there are too many “cheap supposed-to-be forensics experts” around, and this is due to the fact that it’s a profession not easy to regulate. It’s not always true that someone who has certification is a good one, as well as it’s not true that who doesn’t have any certification is not good at all.

We will loose the great advantage of data carving

Yuri: Cloud computing is becoming very popular now. Do you think that forensic investigation itself is going to be much more difficult due to the cloud idea implementation?

Pasquale: I’ve never been very fond of cloud computing concept, even less when it comes to forensics. Although all the big vendors keep advertising all the benefits that cloud implementation will bring also to computer forensics, I think it will be more difficult especially regarding the phase of data collection. Let’s just take as the example a cloud OS, a browser-based web desktop. According to the cloud paradigm, user data can be anywhere in the cloud. This means that all the data of one user could even be on two different servers in two different countries. Therefore, while now law enforcement needs a warrant from a local prosecutor to confiscate a pc of a suspect or person under investigation, in the cloud scenario there is the need of one or more international warrants. This will dramatically increase the time needed to obtain those data and prevent the person under investigation from access. Moreover even thinking about the “immediate freeze”, which is the biggest “forensics feature” cloud providers are advertising all over, we will lose the great advantage of data carving since all we will have it will be a logical image of the system.

Yuri: What every investigator should know on mobile malware?

Pasquale: There is no simple answer to this. It’s a relatively new area that is rising very quickly and it will be one of the major trends in the near future in my opinion because smartphones are always-on, always connected devices, which are extremely attractive characteristics for malware writers. I think that for those that would like to start working on mobile malware, it is very important first to learn smartphone internals and their architecture, understanding first how the device works.

Pasquale and the digital glass of wine.

Yuri: What forensic resources do you regularly read? What would you recommend to others?

Pasquale: I get really a lot from several mailing lists such as win4n6, sans-gift and forensics focus. These are the best places to learn and contribute to the community by exchanging ideas, doubts and personal experiences of each practitioner. Then the must blog are windows of Harlan Carvey and the SANS Forensics blog, my subscription to Digital Forensics Magazine and finally Twitter. By making a list of people and topics to follow on twitter is the best and quickest way to be updated, I really advise it. I’m also responsible for a monthly forensics newsletter for one of the association I’m involved into, Digital Forensics Alumni, which has received many positive feedbacks so far.

Finally, I also read a lot of conference papers, but this is mostly for those who are involved and interested in research and development more than just how to carry on their daily forensics analysis.

The need of mobile forensics experts will increase exponentially

Yuri: Please give some predictions of what may happen in the nearest 5 years with computer forensics.

Pasquale: 5 years in the IT world is almost like an Era, just think that 5 years ago it was almost coming out the first iPhone and its consequent “revolution” for the mobile world. It’s not the easy prediction to make, but I think it will increase exponentially the need of mobile forensics experts.

Yuri: Can you tell any funny story related to computer forensics?

Pasquale: It’s about an old judge, not much aware of computers in general appearance, who asked to have the content of the whole hard disk printed. (smiling)

Yuri: How old are you?

Pasquale: 28

Yuri: How many kids do you have?

Pasquale: I’m not married neither have kids.

Yuri: How do you spend your free time?

Pasquale: I’m a very social person, I love to get surrounded by my friends so most of the activities I do with them. These activities are cooking (a lot), traveling, doing sports (several), going to theater and cinema. When I cannot be with them, I love reading and listening to music. I try also to play guitar, but clearly, I wasn’t born to be a musician. (smiling)

Yuri: Heh, I am playing guitar as well!

How many hours of sleep do you usually have?

Pasquale: As less as I can. I try to sleep around 5 to 6 hours per night when I manage, although it happens often to sleep less. Unfortunately, 24h is not enough to do all the things I want. (smiling)

Yuri: What is your favorite vacation spot?

Pasquale: Anywhere as long as there is the sea.

I’m crazy about footbal

Yuri: Do you do any sports? Which one? What is your preference in watching professional sports?

Pasquale: I’m Italian so of course I’m crazy about football. But I also do jogging, I like swimming and since one year I started sailing, which is great.

Yuri: When did you have your last vacation? A real vacation, without any Internet and calls from your colleagues or customers?

Pasquale: It happened only once so far. Summer 2011, last week of August. It was one whole week on a sailing boat, in the Mediterranean Sea, so clearly I could not take my laptop with me. That’s the only way to prevent me from being in front of my computer and connected to the Internet, even if I’m on holidays. (smiling)

Pasquale on a digital yacht (but without the laptop!)

URI: Do you have a dream?

Pasquale: When I started University I was dreaming one day I to receive the Turing Award, which would mean that your knowledge and contribution to the community have been acknowledged by your peers. Now my dream is to build a family and have children.

Yuri: Pasquale, thank you for your interview!

Interview with Ilya Sachkov

Ilya Sachkov, Founder, and CEO at Group IB, in this interview, tell us about DDoS and malware threat as well as Russian cybercrime specifics.

Ilya Sachkov, CISM, the founder and head of Group-IB, the leading Russian company, specializing in the investigation of computer crime, information security breaches, and computer forensics. The author of a technology of investigation of circumstances of DDoS attacks. The member of the International Information Systems Forensics Association (IISFA), the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), the Honeynet Project, the Russian Information Systems Security Professional Association (RISSPA) and the Committee against Cyber-Crime at the Russian Association of Electronic Communication (RAEC).

Ilya Sachkov, the founder and head of Group-IB, expert in DDoS attack investigations

Yuri: Ilya, what is your current job?

Ilya: Now I’m holding the position of General Manager in Group-IB. I’m responsible for the long-term development planning, bringing new products and services to the market, collaboration with strategic partners from business and law-enforcement agencies. I’m keeping our development within the values that lay the foundation of our business and guarantee that all the employees and the company, in general, are as professional as possible. Apart from the management, I’m trying (but it happens rarely) to take part in the most resonance investigations. In addition, I’m co-chairman of the commission for cybercrime in Russian Association for Electronic Communications and the Expert for Cybercrime in Russian Duma.

My first investigation was at 11th year of school

Yuri: How did you become involved in computer security field?

Ilya: I studied in the physics and math school-laboratory #444 in Moscow. The training in the Information Security started when I was in 9th form. When I was in 11th form, I clearly understood who I would be and took part in my first investigation for the Ministry of education and science. That time unknown persons used schools’ logins and passwords to get a free Internet access. They used malicious software for gathering information. As for me, it was very interesting and I got my first reward for that investigation.

Being a senior, I was reading lections to our lecturers

Yuri: Do you have any related education? What did you major in at university?

Ilya: I have graduated Bauman MSTU in Moscow for a degree with honors. I have been studying at the Information Security Department at the Faculty of Information and Management Systems. There I’ve accepted a systematic approach for the information processing. But all of the special skills were gained by the self-education or during the work. It happened that I read lections for some of our teachers at the upper years.

Yuri: Please describe your working day. When you get to, what do you do first? What do you do most of the time?

Ilya: Fortunately, I don’t have a typical working day. The day is overwhelmed with meetings and conferences and often with speeches at different events. Usually, it starts at 9-10 AM in the morning and ends late at night. Thanks to the possibility of remote work many things I do at home. It happened that I worked all the vacation because there was an internet access in the hotel. But the life has shown that it’s not the best way of relaxing. That’s why I started to go offline.

Our business is not just about earning money

Yuri: What do you like about your job most? Less?

Ilya: I like most that our business is not just a way of getting money. There’s a huge meaning for the entire society. The job we are doing helps to denounce violators, decrease the number of incidents, and give the money back, and so on. It’s linked with the travels, dangers and even some kind of romantics. We always have to learn and discover something new; take the floor, contact with people. I like less that we have a winter and bad weather in autumn, but I think it’s not about the job itself.

The first investment in our company was returned in a week

Yuri: This is something you would not complain if you try to spend these seasons in St-Petersburg, rather than in Moscow (smiling). How did you join your company? How it started and what is its’ main differentiation to others?

Ilya: I started to work in the 11th form. It was my luck and I managed to work at responsible positions in the field of the information security in large and international companies when I was very young. At some moment I felt bored. So, I understood that information security is not the thing I actually want. All the time long I was remembering investigations of the incidents in school and tried to work with incidents and investigations as much as possible. Once upon a time I’ve got an American book about computer crime investigations – «Incident Response: Investigating Computer Crime» by Kevin Mandia and Chris Prosise. I was wondering who is doing the same things in Russia and discovered that such organization doesn’t exist. When I asked the K-department (special police department for stopping computer crime) representative “Can I come to work with you?” he just said “No”. (Now we perform 30-40% of work by the requests from police). So I had to establish my own business. We started with a small lab in MSTU but very soon we could rent our own office. The first investment of $5 000 was repaid in a week when we got our first investigation. After just a half of year, we were overwhelmed with a work from police and commercial organizations. It happened despite the fact that in 2003 very small amount of people understood what the business in the field of computer crime and investigations is.

Yuri: What is special about your company?

Ilya: First of all we are the only company of our kind in the CIS. We managed to attract professional specialists in our field one by one. For now, we are always invited in every resonance or difficult case linked with cybercrime or malfeasance in informational technologies. So, we are at the sharpest edge of the fight against cybercrime and can see its’ most current and deep aspects.

Our customers call us magicians

Yuri: What is the most unusual thing a customer has ever said about your company or your solutions?

Ilya: Usually our clients don’t believe that it’s possible to find or bring an offender to book. When it happens they say “How did you do it”? They even call us magicians, but, of course, we work without any magic.

Yuri: What is the most challenging investigation you have ever been involved too?

Ilya: For example, in 2012 the hugest gangs in the history of Russian cybercrime were identified and arrested during our investigations. In addition, we participated in the first Russian case when the client, organizer, and executor of the large DDoS-attack were discovered. There also are some investigations we can’t talk about, even if we want. Speaking about large-scale international investigations, I should admit the case with a spammer Leo Kuvaev.

Our company is the best expert in Russian cybercrime

Yuri: What is about your company or tool which you are proud of?

Ilya: I’m proud of the statistics for the completed investigations – it’s about 90%. The rest 10% we use to produce new utilities, methods, and recommendations that will help the customer to prepare for the incident better and be sure of the possibility of the investigation. Our company became the best expert in Russian cybercrime. That’s why Russian media contact us for all the questions linked with the information security. We are very proud of it and will not leave our position of #1 in this field.

Yuri: Your company has recently opened an office in the USA. Is it tough for Russian organization to get trust from American customers? Russia and China are considered the faithless countries due to the amount of cybercrime, so it is hard to imagine how cautious Americans trust you.

Ilya: There was no risk in opening an American office. Among our clients, there are international and generally American companies, which need our support and help within Russian market. US companies tried to involve American criminalists and investigators but didn’t achieve any adorable result. There are a lot of specific Russian nuances, which have to be taken into account. Legal peculiarities, technical questions – I’m not speaking about a simple language barrier. That’s why a half of our clients are international companies, which want to get high-quality services in Russia. For example, we are the vendor for the CIS investigations for the Microsoft.

While opening US office, we had a minimum plan:

1. Support existing clients from the USA being physically available (office in New York) in the same time zone.

2. Provide 24-hour operation for our incident reaction center CERT-GIB, and eliminate night workers in Moscow.

3. Work with local police for the problems of Russian cybercrime counteraction.

The Internet has no borders and the business is out of the politics

After several first months, we repaid all the expenses for the representative office opening. When the minimum plan was completed we started with common commercial activities. Of course, it’s difficult to compete with American giants in the corporate sector. But the first year shows that our service as Russian cybercrime specialists is in high demand. Many potential competitors in the USA became our partners.

Russian man can be watchful to Americans and vice a versa. But I personally think that all of this is just a prejudice and a lack of education. The businessmen have already understood that the Internet has no borders and the business is out of the politics. We are also beyond these borders.

Yuri: By the way, to the previous question: can you confirm that there are really that much Russians in cybercrime?

Ilya: We divide Russian cybercriminals to Russian citizens and Russian-speaking citizens of former SU countries. But in any case, I can say that there are quite a lot of Russian hackers. It can be explained by a good technical education and hard years or 90th when many people lost their honesty and generosity. But Russia does not stand out against all other countries. There are a lot of hackers in the US, China, countries of South Africa. Yes, there are persons of natural gifts in Russia, they can invent new schemes and are good in code writing – it’s the fact. But as for the number of hackers and incidents, the RF is not a leader definitely.

Russian hackers are famous for new schemes

Yuri: What is Russian specifics in cybercrime?

Ilya: Russians are famous for new schemes. Usually, Russians invent new approaches which are used by all the other hackers: botnets, DDoS-attacks, affiliate programs and so on. All of these were invented by Russians. Speaking about now I can say that we have a unique situation. I call it “three-headed dragon”: the feel of impunity, the technical ability to theft and an economical possibility to legalize stolen money. That’s why organized gangs appear in Russia, and it’s difficult to fight them within the legal field.

In Russian criminal code there is no such concept as “digital evidence”

Yuri: What is Russian specifics for doing computer forensics?

Ilya: The specifics of the legal system force Russian criminalists to know a lot not only in information technologies but also in legal nuances. It’s quite difficult to work with digital proof if there’s no such concept in the criminal code.

Yuri: Your MSc thesis dealt with creating a mathematical model of a botnet. Can you give more details? Do you use this model in your current work?

Ilya: I’ve composed a methodology of discovering so-called botnet mold by logs of attack, a type of malware, and some other parameters, which you can get from Honeynet. This model was being developed from 2007 to 2009. It allows comparing the molds of attacks and identifying attacker’s botnet. Let’s assume that there’s a test buy of an attack, which will be aimed to our protected resource. And we get a mold. The next time when the attack will target any usual website, our methodology allows us to check is that the same botnet in 90% of cases. When p2p-botnets and decentralized C&C appeared we had to modify the methodology significantly, but in 2009 it helped to solve many crimes linked with DDoS-attacks. I know that my methodology is being used in the USA and Germany to investigate similar crimes.

The best protection from DDoS is legal pressure

Yuri: Your company fights against DDoS attacks. What methods do you use?

Ilya: We use our traffic routing and analysis system with points of presence in India, China, the USA, Germany, Russian and Argentina For example, we’ve defended from the attack of 24 Gb/s to one of the largest Russian media. But think that the best protection from DDoS is legal pressure. In another case, it becomes to the armament race.

Yuri: What are your immediate plans with regards to your company? Your solutions?

Ilya: We plan to work more actively in European, Arabic and Asia markets. Also, we’ll launch channel sales of our software for the financial operations protection.

I  know computer crime agents, who cannot prepare a list with right questions to an expert

Yuri: What do you think every police/private investigator should know about computer forensics?

Ilya: I think that, first of all, every police representative should know that there’s such area like computer forensics and understand what it can do for the investigation. If everybody knows about it – they will have no more questions. I know criminal investigators for murders, who solved the most difficult cases with the computer forensics. But I also know agents for computer crime, who cannot prepare a list with right questions for an expert. Everybody working with any crime, linked with information technologies, must know about and use the computer forensics. Information technologies pierce through all parts of our life. They contain a lot of marks. We should use them for right things and quickly draw necessary information.

We have no goal to threaten anyone with Russian hackers

Yuri: In your interviews, you say Russian cybercrime market is about 2B while worldwide it is 7B, what makes Russian market one of the biggest shares in the world. How did you calculate the figure?

Ilya: We have been doing this job for a whole year. Performing computer investigations, we gather information about cybercriminals’ accounts in different payment systems. Considering the largest players, statistics and mathematical modeling, we get the approximate evaluation of the whole market. It’s important that information is based on the real accounts – just after that, we use the math. We get similar info from our partners all over the world. All of it underlay the research and in March of the current year, we publish the report for the last year. We should admit that analysts re-check the information and use new sources every year. We understand the responsibility in numbers publication, that they can be used for the political fight. But we have no goal to threaten anyone with Russian hackers. First of all, we want to explain that there are world-scale problems, but not just competition “who is the first and who is the second.”

Development of computer forensics in Russia has just been started

Yuri: In your opinion, what is the current state of computer forensic science in Russia? Of legal computer forensic practices?

Ilya: The average evaluation is 5 points from 10 in all the country. There are special situations with our and some governmental labs, which can compete with the most advanced Western facilities. But they are just an exclusion from the rules. In the country-wide scale, the development of computer forensics has just been started. The legislation needs many serious improvements. For example, we need to add a concept of “digital proof”, define the sequence of gathering for digital proofs, etc. There’s also a need to toughen the criminal code in terms of computer crime. Now malefactors don’t feel any serious responsibility.

Yuri: How can you explain the fact that it is so big?

Ilya: I cannot say that computer forensics is developed well in our country. In many regions, it’s just in the first stage. But I can admit positive moments. The government clearly understands the meaning of this area and started investing in the labs and experts’ education.

Yuri: I actually was speaking about the cybercrime market size… Anyway. What are Russian legal system and practice specifics?

Ilya: It’s difficult to speak about any specifics because our system doesn’t differ much from the worldwide one. There was no special school formed in Russia in the area of computer forensics. Our experts always carefully learn world’s trends, trying to adopt the best practices and improve them. In some cases, we definitely lag behind our Western colleagues, but we manage to decrease this lag little by little.

Yuri: I’ve heard that in one case a police investigator went online on a suspect’s computer two weeks after arresting that suspect and still, evidence found on this computer was acknowledged by a court. In the US this situation will lead to a total invalidation of all evidence from such computer.

Ilya: Frankly speaking I hear of this for the first time. It seems to be the sole precedent and the demonstration of the weak understanding of the computer crime specifics. In other cases, this kind of actions would lead to rejection of proofs.

Customers often don’t believe that computer criminal can be caught

Yuri: Are there any obstacles to selling services like yours?

Ilya: The main obstacle is that people often don’t believe that computer malefactors could be caught. Quite often they even don’t go to the police, where they can get free help. What can we say about commercial service? Nevertheless, the situation is changing little by little. The media started to pay attention to the computer crime. The materials about the basics of the cybersecurity started to appear with the stories about identifying and arresting of the next malefactor group by the police. It allows changing social opinion and destroying the myth about unstoppable hackers. When people will finally understand that the offender can be successfully identified and brought to responsibility, the computer forensic in Russia will advance with strides.

The problem with clouds is the absence of synchronization for the international legislation

Yuri: Cloud computing is becoming very popular now. The more data is in a cloud, the less data is on a suspect’s computer, right? Do you think that digital investigation itself is going to be much more difficult due to the cloud idea implementation? How does this reflect on your company?

Ilya: Behind any cloud, there are severs and computers. That’s why computer forensics must be ready only for growing amount of data. The only thing that prevents is the absence of synchronization for the international legislation. Law-enforcement agencies cannot get “legal access” to any cloud. As for our company, we have not experienced any difficulties with clouds. Honestly, the job became even easier.

More crimes are being solved with the help of social networks

Yuri: The same question about social networks, which displace usual evidence such as mailboxes, chats, etc.: does this make investigations more difficult?

Ilya: It’s not a secret that a number of solved crimes has grown because of social networks. It’s the same for us. Social networks bring huge possibilities for the analysis and search. As for computer forensics, I’ve noticed no problems with Russian networks.

Yuri: What do you like most about computer forensics? Less?

Ilya: Computer malefactors always leave marks. I love computer forensic for the possibility of finding cause and effect within different incident stages. I don’t like that computer is bad for my eyes.

Yuri: What forensic resources do you regularly read? What would you recommend to others?

Ilya: I benefit from my position in the company, so getting interesting articles, printed by analysts after prior selection. If there was no such service, I’d use and

Russian government clearly understands the meaning of this area and started investing to the labs and experts’ education

Yuri: What do you see as major trends in cybercrime? Globally and in particular, in Russia?

Ilya: Superprofit. The interest of traditional criminals for the computer crime. Misunderstanding the sharpness of the problem by the major part of the society. This is true for Russia and the entire world.

Yuri: Please give us some projections of what we will see in computer forensics in the 5-year perspective.

Ilya: Considering the rate of the Internet speed growth and amounts of processed information I want forensic complexes to raise their speed and to be ready for huge data arrays in so-called clouds.

Yuri: How many kids do you have?

Ilya: There are no kids yet, but I want to have a son in the nearest time.

Yuri: How do you spend your free time?

Ilya: Sport, reading, tea, coffee, and cinema.

Yuri: How many hours of sleep do you usually have?

Ilya: Usually 6-7 hours.

Yuri: What is your favorite vacation spot?

Ilya: I’m not sure yet. I try to explore new places every year.

I hold first-class in swimming

Yuri: Do you do any sports? Which one? What is your preference in watching professional sports?

Ilya: I hold first-class in swimming. Also, I go in for fitness and some martial arts.

Yuri: When did you have your last vacation? A real vacation, without any Internet and calls from your colleagues or customers?

Ilya: The Samui Island – Thailand Kingdom.

Yuri: Great, this is also one of my favorites. Do you have a dream?

Ilya: Yes, but Russian proverb says, that I should not speak about my dream or it will not come true. That’s why I won’t tell about my big dream. Apart of it, I want to play the guitar and go for horse walk to the places of Civil War battles.

Yuri: Guitar is something I can help with! (smiling) Thank you for your interview, Ilya!

Interview with Tolga Gonenli

Tolga Gonenli is well-known conference organizer, which we’ve met with at the first EuroForensics conference. He, now, organizes EMEA Intelligence, the only Intelligence and Surveillance technologies conference in the region. It is very interesting to learn, what is behind the curtains of conference preparations. Today Tolga shares his experience regarding that.

Tolga Gonenli, graduated University of Massachusets, Amherst, with a degree in Political Science. Following his graduation he went back to his homeland, the Republic of Turkey, where he excelled in running international trade shows for different employers and sectors, finally to become one of the coordinators of CeBIT Eurasia, the largest ICT exhibition in the EMEA region.

His career allowed Tolga to be able to analyse the current ICT sector in the region, which led him to discover the need for specialized conferences in forensic sciences and intelligence technologies.

Tolga is now the managing partner of A.T. Strategies (ATS), a company which represents many international companies in counter terror technologies, lawful interception, and forensics. ATS, together with its partnering company Komtera Technologies, organizes an annual event by the name EMEA Intelligence: International Intelligence and Surveillance Technologies Conference and Exhibition in Turkey.

Tolga Gonenli, managing partner of A.T. Strategies

Yuri: Tolga, please briefly describe your current occupation.

Tolga: I am the managing partner of ATS Consultancy, which organizes the only intelligence & surveillance technologies conference and exhibition, namely ‘EMEA Intelligence’ in the EMEA region as well as represents major international defense, detection, forensics and surveillance equipment and infrastructure companies especially in the Republic of Turkey.

Yuri: What did you major in at university?

Tolga: I majored in Political Science at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. I did one year exchange at the University of Heidelberg in Germany within the social sciences department; adding the European perspective to my education.

I believe in boutique events with subject matter focus

Yuri: You are successful event organizer. Why did you decide to organize forensics conferences?

Tolga: I used to be one of the coordinators of a major IT gathering in the entire region including Turkey. My personal assessment of the event/exhibition business is that the era of the major events which umbrella over gross number of topics, is coming to an end. I believe boutique events with subject matter focus, housing both a conference and an exhibition under the same roof, enabling the user to interact with the experts speaking at the conference are going to be the future of this business.

The regional market indicated that the EMEA region did not have an international IT security and/or security IT event at the time. We started with a forensics focus, later to evolve, with the feedback coming from both the end-users and the vendors, into an intelligence and surveillance event. I believe our business can easily be categorized under the topic of ‘Homeland Security’.

An organizer has to understand the needs of both end-users and vendors

Yuri: What features do you think you have which help you to be that successful in conference organization?

Tolga: An event organizer has to understand the needs of the end-user as well as the vendor in the region. I seek and receive feedback from both these players in the market and construct the following year’s event accordingly. The major feature of personal success and the success of any conference and/or exhibition is flexibility and market compatibility.

Yuri: I have been attending only two conferences with both computer and medical forensics in one. One of them was EuroForensics. Why did you decide to couple these two branches of forensic science?

Tolga: Bringing digital & medical forensics together under one roof did not prove to be a successful model, and received much criticism. We therefore took a different route and created an only digital content event by the name ‘EMEA Intelligence’.

Tolga Gonenli and his conference

Yuri: To what extent is it complex to organize a conference of this size? What is the most complex thing to solve?

Tolga: The most complex part of any event is attracting the right portfolio of international visitors.

Turkey is the best location here for information flow

Yuri: Why Turkey? Is it just because you are from there or is there some major idea behind choosing this country?

Tolga: Turkey is indisputably the best location for information flow in the EMEA region. Social and political standing and future vision of Turkey, signals a regional leadership of all information flow, bridging west to the east, south-east, and north-east.

Yuri: What is the most challenging in organizing a conference? What is, vice versa, your reward?

Tolga: Challenge is to attract the right portfolio of international visitors, which also possess the buying and/or decision making power. Reward is the sustainable network created around the event.

Yuri: How do you measure conference success?

Tolga: The answer is three-fold; a successful event is:

  1. Where the vendor attending the event meets their prospective buyer, and receives information about future projects & tenders.
  2. Where the vendors find suitable and sustainable partnerships in the region, enabling them to coordinate their sales and services in countries abroad.
  3. Where the visitors learn about the future vision of the vendors, are able to share their current problems, and find new technologies, which may address their issues.

We try to visit as many conferences as possible

Yuri: Do you visit other conferences of this kind? Do you improve, basing on such experience?

Tolga: We try to visit as many conferences as possible of similar backgrounds to improve our vision leading up to the best possible service for the attending vendors as well as visitors. We also ask our network to give us feedback based on their experience attending other events, and what they believe would increase their value/return by their participation to EMEA Intelligence.

Yuri: What would you recommend to a person, who’d like to organize brand new conference in their country? What are the major fiducial points?

Tolga: One would have to contact all concerned parties within their own country, and gather information as to what their needs are regarding their operational mission & vision. Analysis of this information is fundamental to the success and sustainability of the event, which will unavoidably benefit both the vendor and the visitor attending the event.

Yuri: What forensic resources do you regularly read?

Tolga: I follow

Yuri: What do you see as major trends in forensic conferences? More or less interest, more or less visitors/exhibitors of any kind, etc?

Tolga: We believe the major trends are counter-intelligence, lawful interception, image and video analysis, homeland security, and forensic accounting.

Yuri: How old are you?

Tolga: 31

Yuri: How many kids do you have?

Tolga: None

Yuri: How do you spend your free time?

Tolga: Sports

Yuri: How many hours of sleep do you usually have?

Tolga: 6

Yuri: What is your favorite vacation spot? What is the most unusual place you have ever been to?

Tolga: Maine, USA. Unusual is in the eye of the beholder.

Yuri: Do you do any sports? Which one? What is your preference in watching professional sports?

Tolga: Waterpolo, Martial Arts & Golf

Yuri: When did you have your last vacation? A real vacation, without any Internet and calls from your colleagues or customers?

Tolga: Exactly 12 months ago.

Yuri: Do you have a dream?

Tolga: You will hear about it in 6 months to 1 year time frame.

Yuri: Very intriguing! Thanks, Tolga, for your interview!

‘He, now, organizes EMEA Intelligence,

the only Intelligence and Surveillance technologies conference in the